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Figures, Tropes, and Other Rhetorical Terms (page two)

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Argumentation Techniques

  • accismus
    Coyness: a form of irony in which a person feigns a lack of interest in something that he or she actually desires.

  • allegory
    Extending a metaphor so that objects, persons, and actions in a text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text.

  • analogy
    Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases.

  • anecdote
    A short account of an interesting or amusing incident, often intended to illustrate or support some point.

  • anticipation
    General name for argumentative strategies whereby a speaker or writer foresees and replies to objections.

  • antirrhesis
    Rejecting an argument because of its insignificance, error, or wickedness.

  • apophasis
    The mention of something in disclaiming intention of mentioning it--or pretending to deny what is really affirmed.

  • aporia
    The expression of real or simulated doubt or perplexity.

  • aposiopesis
    An unfinished thought or broken sentence.

  • argument
    A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood.

  • categoria
    Direct exposure of an adversary's faults.

  • chleuasmos
    A sarcastic reply that mocks an opponent, leaving him or her without an answer.

  • confirmation
    The main part of a speech or text in which logical arguments in support of a position are elaborated.

  • concession
    Argumentative strategy by which a speaker or writer concedes a disputed point or leaves a disputed point to the audience or reader to decide.

  • dehortatio
    Dissuasive advice given with authority.

  • deliberative
    Speech or writing that attempts to persuade an audience to take (or not to take) some action.

  • demonstrative rhetoric
    Persuasion that deals with values that bring a group together; the rhetoric of ceremony, commemoration, declamation, demonstration, play, and display.

  • diatyposis
    Recommending useful precepts or advice to someone else.

  • distinctio
    Explicit references to various meanings of a word--usually for the purpose of removing ambiguities.

  • enthymeme
    An informally stated syllogism with an implied premise.

  • epicrisis
    Circumstance in which a speaker quotes a passage and comments on it.

  • epimone
    Frequent repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point.

  • epiplexis
    Asking questions to reproach rather than to elicit answers.

  • erotesis
    A rhetorical question implying strong affirmation or denial.

  • ethopoeia
    Putting oneself in place of another so as to both understand and express his or her feelings more vividly.

  • ethos
    Persuasive appeal based on the character or the projected character of the speaker or writer.

  • evidence
    Facts, documentation, or testimony used to strengthen a claim or reach a conclusion.

  • exordium
    The introductory part of an argument in which a speaker or writer establishes credibility (ethos) and announces the subject and purpose of the discourse.

  • fable
    A short narrative meant to teach a moral lesson.

  • hyperbole
    An extravagant statement; the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect.

  • hypocrisis
    Exaggerating the gestures or speech habits of another in order to mock him.

  • hypophora
    Raising questions and answering them.

  • identification
    Any of the wide variety of means by which an author may establish a shared sense of values, attitudes, and interests with his or her readers.

  • innuendo
    An indirect or subtle, usually derogatory implication in expression; an insinuation.

  • invective
    Denunciatory or abusive language; discourse that casts blame on somebody or something.

  • kairos
    The opportune time and/or place, the right time to say or do the right thing.

  • judicial
    Speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain charge or accusation.

  • logos
    In classical rhetoric, the means of persuasion by demonstration of the truth, real or apparent.

  • meiosis
    To belittle, use a degrading epithet, often through a trope of one word; rhetorical understatement.

  • metaphor
    An implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.

  • metonymy
    A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").

  • narratio
    The part of an argument in which a speaker or writer provides a narrative account of what has happened and explains the nature of the case.

  • parable
    A short and simple story that illustrates a lesson.

  • paradox
    A statement that appears to contradict itself.

  • paralepsis
    Emphasizing a point by seeming to pass over it.

  • parody
    A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.

  • pathos
    The means of persuasion in classical rhetoric that appeals to the audience's emotions.

  • prolepsis
    (1) Foreseeing and forestalling objections in various ways. (2) Figurative device by which a future event is presumed to have already occurred.

  • proverb
    Short, pithy statement of a general truth, one that condenses common experience into memorable form.

  • refutation
    The part of an argument wherein a speaker or writer anticipates and counters opposing points of view.

  • rhetorical situation
    The context of a rhetorical act.

  • sarcasm
    A mocking, often ironic or satirical remark.

  • simile
    A stated comparison (usually formed with "like" or "as") between two dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common.

  • skotison
    Intentionally obscure speech or writing.

  • sprezzatura
    The rehearsed spontaneity, the studied carelessness, the well-practiced naturalness that lies at the center of convincing discourse of any sort.

  • syllogism
    A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.

  • synecdoche
    A figure of speech is which a part is used to represent the whole, the whole for a part, the specific for the general, the general for the specific, or the material for the thing made from it.

  • testimony
    A person's account of an event or state of affairs.

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