- Amplification Strategies (page one)
- Argumentation Techniques (below)
- Balance, Antithesis, and Paradox (page three)
- Emotional Appeals (Pathos) (page three)
- Metaphorical Substitutions and Puns (page three)
- Omission of Words, Phrases, and Clauses (page three)
- Repetition of Letters, Syllables, and Sounds (page four)
- Repetition of Words, Phrases, Clauses, and Ideas (page four)
Coyness: a form of irony in which a person feigns a lack of interest in something that he or she actually desires.
Extending a metaphor so that objects, persons, and actions in a text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text.
Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases.
A short account of an interesting or amusing incident, often intended to illustrate or support some point.
General name for argumentative strategies whereby a speaker or writer foresees and replies to objections.
Rejecting an argument because of its insignificance, error, or wickedness.
The mention of something in disclaiming intention of mentioning it--or pretending to deny what is really affirmed.
The expression of real or simulated doubt or perplexity.
An unfinished thought or broken sentence.
A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood.
Direct exposure of an adversary's faults.
A sarcastic reply that mocks an opponent, leaving him or her without an answer.
The main part of a speech or text in which logical arguments in support of a position are elaborated.
Argumentative strategy by which a speaker or writer concedes a disputed point or leaves a disputed point to the audience or reader to decide.
Dissuasive advice given with authority.
Speech or writing that attempts to persuade an audience to take (or not to take) some action.
- demonstrative rhetoric
Persuasion that deals with values that bring a group together; the rhetoric of ceremony, commemoration, declamation, demonstration, play, and display.
Recommending useful precepts or advice to someone else.
Explicit references to various meanings of a word--usually for the purpose of removing ambiguities.
An informally stated syllogism with an implied premise.
Circumstance in which a speaker quotes a passage and comments on it.
Frequent repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point.
Asking questions to reproach rather than to elicit answers.
A rhetorical question implying strong affirmation or denial.
Putting oneself in place of another so as to both understand and express his or her feelings more vividly.
Persuasive appeal based on the character or the projected character of the speaker or writer.
Facts, documentation, or testimony used to strengthen a claim or reach a conclusion.
The introductory part of an argument in which a speaker or writer establishes credibility (ethos) and announces the subject and purpose of the discourse.
A short narrative meant to teach a moral lesson.
An extravagant statement; the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect.
Exaggerating the gestures or speech habits of another in order to mock him.
Raising questions and answering them.
Any of the wide variety of means by which an author may establish a shared sense of values, attitudes, and interests with his or her readers.
An indirect or subtle, usually derogatory implication in expression; an insinuation.
Denunciatory or abusive language; discourse that casts blame on somebody or something.
The opportune time and/or place, the right time to say or do the right thing.
Speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain charge or accusation.
In classical rhetoric, the means of persuasion by demonstration of the truth, real or apparent.
To belittle, use a degrading epithet, often through a trope of one word; rhetorical understatement.
An implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").
The part of an argument in which a speaker or writer provides a narrative account of what has happened and explains the nature of the case.
A short and simple story that illustrates a lesson.
A statement that appears to contradict itself.
Emphasizing a point by seeming to pass over it.
A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.
The means of persuasion in classical rhetoric that appeals to the audience's emotions.
(1) Foreseeing and forestalling objections in various ways. (2) Figurative device by which a future event is presumed to have already occurred.
Short, pithy statement of a general truth, one that condenses common experience into memorable form.
The part of an argument wherein a speaker or writer anticipates and counters opposing points of view.
- rhetorical situation
The context of a rhetorical act.
A mocking, often ironic or satirical remark.
A stated comparison (usually formed with "like" or "as") between two dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common.
Intentionally obscure speech or writing.
The rehearsed spontaneity, the studied carelessness, the well-practiced naturalness that lies at the center of convincing discourse of any sort.
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
A figure of speech is which a part is used to represent the whole, the whole for a part, the specific for the general, the general for the specific, or the material for the thing made from it.
A person's account of an event or state of affairs.