Etymology:From the Old French, "condensed"
Examples and Observations:
- "[O]rganization of ideas, logical sequencing of points, clear and meaningful expression, [and the] use of language suitable to the situation are essential for writing précis effectively. The writer of précis must be able to identify the essential ideas in a given passage and separate them from nonessential ideas. But at the same time a précis is not a [type of] creative writing, inasmuch as it is merely a condensed restatement of the original writer's ideas, points, etc."
(Aruna Koneru, Professional Communication. Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008)
- Sample Precis: Aristotle on the Character of Those in the Prime of Life
Original Passage (199 words)
"It is evident that those in the prime of life will be between the young and the old in character, subtracting the excess of either, and neither exceedingly conﬁdent (rashness is such) nor too fearful but having the right amount of both, neither trusting nor distrusting everybody but rather making realistic judgments and not directing their lives only to what is ﬁne or what is advantageous but to both and neither to frugality nor to extravagance but to what is ﬁtting. Similarly in regard to impulse and desire. And they combine prudence with courage and courage with prudence, while among the young and the old these things are separated; for the young are brave and lack self-restraint, the older prudent and cowardly. To speak in general terms, whatever advantages youth and old age have separately, [those in their prime] combine, and whatever the former have to excess or in deﬁciency, the latter have in due measure and in a ﬁtting way. The body is in its prime from the age of thirty to thirty-ﬁve, the mind about age forty-nine. Let this much be said about the kinds of character of youth and old age and the prime of life."
(Aristotle, Rhetoric, Book Two, Chapter 14. Translated by George A. Kennedy, Aristotle, On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse. Oxford University Press, 1991)
Precis (68 words)
"The character of those in the prime of life lies midway between that of youth and of age. Neither rash nor timid, neither skeptical nor overtrusting, they usually make choices on a true basis. They are not given to excess in desire, nor to lack of feeling or parsimony. They live respecting both honor and expediency. In short, the most useful traits of youth and age are theirs."
(James J. Murphy and Richard A. Katula, A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric, 3rd ed. Hermagoras Press, 2003)
- Methods and Purpose
"A precis is not an outline, but a summary or digest. It is useful as an exercise in grasping the essential ideas of an already completed composition and in stating these ideas in concentrated form. The precis shears away all elaborations of the thought and gives only what is left, in such a way as to make the summary a complete composition. It does not, therefore, skeletonize the original composition so much as it reduces its scale. Many of the articles in The Reader's Digest are only precis, so skillfully done that the average reader does not know that he is reading a summary. Since the precis says a great deal within a brief space, it is of great service in taking notes on library assignments and general reading."
(Donald Davidson, American Composition and Rhetoric. Scribner's, 1968)
- Example of a Precis in MLA style
"Here is an example of a precis in MLA style:
Newman, Leah. Robert Frost: The People, Places, and Stories Behind His New England Poetry. Shelburne, VT: The New England Press, 2000.The precis may also have included evaluative comments on the work as well."
Newman has collected 36 of Frost's poems, arranging them chronologically according to when they were written or based upon her educated estimate if an exact date for his writing the poem is not firm. Writing for the ordinary reader and not for scholars, she comments on both the autobiographical evidence in each poem and on literary analyses of it. Her appendices include a chronology of Frost's life, 'How to Start a Frost Poetry Circle,' and thematic groupings of the poems.
(Dawn Rodrigues and R.J. Rodrigues, The Research Paper: A Guide to Library and Internet Research, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, 2003)
- History of Precis Writing
"The history of Precis Writing is practically impossible to trace with any exactitude, for no records, apparently, of its original adoption and gradual growth exist. . . .
"The appointment of Precis Writer, which today is virtually equivalent to that of Private Secretary, was first officially recognised during the reign of Queen Anne [1665 - 1714], by which time it was probably realised that the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs could not possibly himself wade through all the original documents with which he was called upon to deal. . . .
"Adopted originally as a time-saving device, it is only recently that the value of precis writing as a means of mental training has come to be recognised."
(G. B. Beak, Indexing and Précis Writing. Macmillan, 1908)
Also Known As: abstract, summary, executive summary, synopsis
Alternate Spellings: précis