- Identifying Verbals
- -ing Form
- Ten Quick Questions and Answers About Verbs and Verbals
- Verbal Noun
Etymology:From the Latin, "to carry on"
Examples and Observations:
- "Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like wrapping a present and not giving it."
(William Arthur Ward)
- "They cut down elms to build asylums for people driven mad by the cutting down of elms."
(George Barker, The Dead Seagull, 1950)
- "Shooting paintballs is not an art form."
(Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
- "Humor is laughing at what you haven't got when you ought to have it."
(Langston Hughes, "A Note on Humor," 1966)
- "All talk of winning the people by appealing to their intelligence, of conquering them by impeccable syllogism, is so much moonshine."
(H. L. Mencken, quoted by Carl Bode in Mencken, 1969)
- "Eighty percent of success is showing up."
(Woody Allen, Love and Death, 1975)
- Gerunds and Verbal Nouns
"Because they are nounlike, we can think of gerunds as names. But rather than naming persons, places, things, events, and the like, as nouns generally do, gerunds, because they are verbs in form, name activities or behaviors or states of mind or states of being."
(Martha Kolln and Robert Funk, Understanding English Grammar. Allyn & Bacon, 1998)
"A gerund is derived from a verb by adding the suffix -ing. The result is still a verb, and it exhibits ordinary verbal properties, such as taking objects and adverbs. Example: In football, deliberately tripping an opponent is a foul. Here the verb trip occurs in its gerund form tripping, but this tripping is still a verb: it takes the adverb deliberately and the object an opponent. However, the entire phrase deliberately tripping an opponent, because of the gerund within it, now functions as a noun phrase, in this case as the subject of the sentence. So, a gerund is still a verb, but the phrase built around it is nominal, not verbal.
"Very different is a verbal noun constructed with -ing. Though derived from a verb, a verbal noun is strictly a noun, and it exhibits nominal properties . . .."
(R.L. Trask, Mind the Gaffe! Harper, 2006)
- Gerunds and Present Participles
"Present participles and gerunds look similar as words, and they also look similar as phrases. Again, it is the -ing verbal form that causes this problem. To clearly distinguish these, we need to consider their grammatical functions. A present participle functions as a non-finite form of a verb phrase, after verbs of motion and position; it can be an adverb complement after these verbs; it can qualify/modify as an adjective does. In contrast, gerunds like nouns have naming roles and can occupy the place of nouns in many of their grammatical functions. Unlike nouns, they do not name persons, places, things, or events; they name actions, states, and behaviors."
(Bernard O'Dwyer, Modern English Structures: Form, Function, And Position, 2nd ed. Broadview, 2006)