Unlike a conventional adverb, which usually affects the meaning of only a single word or phrase, the meaning of a conjunctive adverb (or conjunct) affects the entire clause of which it is a part.
as a result
at the same time
in any case
in the meantime
on the contrary
on the other hand
Etymology:From the Latin, "join together"
Examples and Observations:
- "Always go to other people's funerals; otherwise, they won't go to yours."
- "Nothing can be unconditional; consequently nothing can be free."
(George Bernard Shaw)
- "As for doing good, that is one of the professions which are full. Moreover, I have tried it fairly, and strange as it may seem, am satisfied that it does not agree with my constitution."
(Henry David Thoreau, Walden, 1854)
- "Learning is about more than simply acquiring new knowledge and insights; it is also crucial to unlearn old knowledge that has outlived its relevance. Thus, forgetting is probably at least as important as learning."
(Gary Ryan Blair)
- "You are never given a wish without also being given the power to make it come true. You may have to work for it, however."
- "They were not sleeping on board the brig. On the contrary, they were talking, singing, laughing."
(Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island, 1874)
- "Barnby and I laughed at this anecdote. Maclintick did not smile. At the same time he seemed struck by the story."
(Anthony Powell, A Dance to the Music of Time: Second Movement, 1964)
- "Very often I must wait weeks and weeks for what you call 'inspiration.' In the meantime I must sit with my quill pen poised in the air over a sheet of foolscap, in case the divine spark should come like a lightning bolt and knock me off my chair on to my head."
(Robert Benchley, "How I Create," 1934)
- "She seemed to have an idea that if a person wanted brown paper he must be wanting to tie up parcels; which was the last thing I wanted to do; indeed, it is a thing which I have found to be beyond my mental capacity. Hence she dwelt very much on the varying qualities of toughness and endurance in the material."
(G. K. Chesterton, "A Piece of Chalk," 1905)
- "Shakespeare's Henry V is a typical Red-blood; so was Bismarck; so was Palmerston; so is almost any business man. On the other hand, typical Mollycoddles were Socrates, Voltaire, and Shelley."
(G. Lowes Dickinson, "Red-Bloods and Mollycoddles," 1915)
- "[B]irds are not really deceived by the passing mildness of a few days, but are obliged to prepare nests, finding themselves in a condition to require them. The cause, in short, is physiological, and not the folly of the bird."
(Richard Jefferies, "January in the Sussex Woods," 1884)
- "Whether the authorities were apprehensive that a rescue would be attempted, or were anxious merely to strike terror into the hundreds of wild Irishry engaged on the railway, I cannot say; in any case, there was a display of military force quite unusual."
(Alexander Smith, A Lark's Flight," 1863)
- "If you are uncertain whether a connecting word is a conjunctive adverb, test by moving the connecting word to another place in the clause. Conjunctive adverbs can be moved; subordinating conjunctions (such as if and because) and coordinating conjunctions (but, or, yet, for, and, nor, so) cannot."
(Stephen Reid, The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers, 2003)