A course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood. Argument is one of the traditional modes of discourse. Adjective: argumentative.
Daniel J. O'Keefe, a professor of communication and persuasion theory, has distinguished two senses of argument. Put simply, "Argument1, the first sense, is a thing people make, as when an editorialist argues that some public policy is wrong. Argument2 is a kind of interaction people have, as when two friends argue about where to have lunch. So argument1 comes close to the ancient rhetorical notion of argument, while argument2 legitimates the modern interactional research."
(Dale Hample, "A Third Perspective on Argument." Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1985)
For the specialized use of this term in language studies, see Argument (Linguistics).
- Audience Analysis
- The Parts of a Speech
- Preparing an Argument: Choosing a Topic, Focusing an Argument, and Planning an Approach
- Circular Argument
- Climactic Order
- Conclusion (Argument)
- Confirmation Bias
- Confrontational Rhetoric
- Critical Thinking
- Dissoi Logoi
- Logical Fallacies
- Logical Proof
- Rhetorical Move
- Rogerian Argument
- Socratic Dialogue
- Toulmin Model
- 40 Essay Topics: Argument & Persuasion
- "The Art of Controversy," by Ambrose Bierce
- A Draft Argumentative Essay: "Time for a New National Anthem" and A Revised Argumentative Essay: "Time for an Anthem the Country Can Sing"
- "The Education of Women," by Daniel Defoe
- "An Essay on the Noble Science of Self-Justification," by Maria Edgeworth
- "The Penalty of Death," by H.L. Mencken
- "The Superstition of School," by G.K. Chesterton
- "The Young Pessimists," by Heywood Broun
Etymology:From the Latin, "to make clear"
Examples and Observations:
- "Most of the arguments to which I am party fall somewhat short of being impressive, owing to the fact that neither I nor my opponent knows what we are talking about."
- "Argument, in its most basic form, can be described as a claim (the arguer's position on a controversial issue) which is supported by reasons and evidence to make the claim convincing to an audience. All of the forms of argument described below include these components.
- Debate, with participants on both sides trying to win.
- Courtroom argument, with lawyers pleading before a judge and jury.
- Dialectic, with people taking opposing views and finally resolving the conflict.
- Single-perspective argument, with one person arguing to convince a mass audience.
- One-on-one everyday argument, with one person trying to convince another.
- Academic inquiry, with one or more people examining a complicated issue.
- Negotiation, with two or more people working to reach consensus.
- Internal argument, or working to convince yourself.
- General Rules for Composing a Short Argument
1. Distinguish premises and conclusion(adapted from A Rulebook for Arguments, 3rd ed., by Anthony Weston. Hackett, 2000)
2. Present your ideas in natural order
3. Start from reliable premises
4. Be concrete and concise
5. Avoid loaded language
6. Use consistent terms
7. Stick to one meaning for each term
- Adapting Arguments to an Audience
"The goals of clarity, propriety, and persuasiveness dictate that we adapt our arguments, as well as the language in which they are cast, to an audience. Even a well-constructed argument may fail to convince if it is not adapted to your actual audience."
(James A. Herrick, Argumentation: Understanding and Shaping Arguments, 3rd ed. Strata, 2007)
- The Lighter Side of Argument: The Argument Clinic
Patron: I came here for a good argument.
Sparring Partner: No, you didn't. You came here for an argument.
Patron: Well, an argument is not the same as contradiction.
Sparring Partner: Can be . . .
Patron: No, it can't. An argument is a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition.
Sparring Partner: No it isn't.
Patron: Yes it is. It isn't just contradiction.
Sparring Partner: Look, if I argue with you, I must take up a contrary position.
Patron: But it isn't just saying "no it isn't."
Sparring Partner: Yes it is.
Patron: No it isn't! An argument is an intellectual process. Contradiction is just the automatic gain-saying of anything the other person says.
Sparring Partner: No it isn't.
(Michael Palin and John Cleese in "The Argument Clinic." Monty Python's Flying Circus, 1972)