A transposition of sounds (often the initial consonants) in two or more words, such as "shoving leopard" in place of "loving shepherd").
A spoonerism is usually accidental and may have a comic effect.
- Assemblage Error
- Slip of the Tongue
- Word Play
- Words at Play: An Introduction to Recreational Linguistics
Etymology:Named after William A. Spooner (1844–1930), who had a reputation for making these slips of the tongue.
Examples and Observations:
- "Rev. Dr. William Archibald Spooner, onetime warden of New College, Oxford, celebrated last fortnight his golden wedding anniversary. He has long been aware that he is the cause of the appearance of the word 'spoonerism' in the Oxford English Dictionary. A spoonerism is the transposition of two sounds, or of the first letters of two words, in a simple sentence. In 1879, Dr. Spooner announced a hymn as 'The Kinquering Congs Their Titles Take.' Since then, he has been labeled the author of countless spoonerisms. But, on his golden wedding celebration, he stoutly maintained that 'Kinquering Congs' was his one and only spoonerism, that it was a slip of his tongue.
"Other famed spoonerisms:
- It is kistomary to cuss the bride.
- Give three cheers for our queer old dean.
- Have you, my brethren, ever nurtured in your bosom a half-warmed fish?"
- "Spooner . . . once said to a stranger who was occupying his personal pew in the college chapel: 'Excuse me, but I think you are occupewing my pie.' He began a speech to an audience of farmers: 'I have never before addressed so may tons of soil.'"
(Peter Farb, Word Play: What Happens When People Talk. Alfred A. Knopf, 1974)
"Spoonerisms all work the same way: the reversed sounds come from the beginnings of the words, rarely at the ends, and very often from the syllable that carries the stress. . . .
"The scientific name for a spoonerism is an exchange, or in the Greek, metaphasis. Just as the word 'Kleenex' now refers to all paper tissues, 'spoonerism' serves as the blanket term for all exchanges of sounds. In general, consonants are more often transposed than vowels. As the psychologist Donald MacKay has observed, the sounds reverse across a distance no greater than a phrase, evidence that a person planning what to say next does so at about a phrase's span in advance."
(Michael Erard, Um . . .: Slips, Stumbles, and Verbal Blunders, and What They Mean. Pantheon, 2007)
- Spoonerisms and Psycholinguistics
"What we can learn from slips of the tongue with regard to psycholinguistics is that
- we obviously start speaking before we have planned how to finish our very first sentence and thatThe latter is also shown by the fact that speech errors in general preserve, for the most part, the word class of the target."
- planning seems to start with a rough outline of the sentence structure which is eventually filled with lexical items while speaking has already started.
(Paul Georg Meyer et al., Synchronic English Linguistics: An Introduction, 3rd ed. Narr, 2002)
- Monty Python's Spoonerisms
Presenter: And what is your next project?
Hamrag Yatlerot: Ring Kichard the Thrid.
Presenter: I'm sorry?
Hamrag Yatlerot: A shroe! A shroe! My dingkome for a shroe!
Presenter: Ah, King Richard, yes. But surely that's not an anagram, that's a spoonerism.
(Michael Palin and Eric Idle in Monty Python's Flying Circus, 1972)
- Jober as a Sudge
"This is a spoonerism for 'Sober as a Judge' and an excuse for hauling out this old exchange:
Defendant: I was drunk as a judge when I committed the offense.(Paul Dickson, Intoxerated: The Definitive Drinker's Dictionary. Melville House, 2012.)
Judge: The expression is 'sober as a judge.' Don't you mean 'drunk as a lord'?
Defendant: Yes, my lord."
"Ronald Derds (or was it Donald Rerds)?
Was a boy who always wixed up his merds.
If anyone asked him,. 'What's the time?'
He'd look at his watch, and say, 'Norter past quine.'"
(Rod Hull, "Ronald/Donald")