American linguist William Labov has called sociolinguistics secular linguistics, "in reaction to the contention among many linguists working in a broadly Chomskyan framework that language can be dissociated from its social functions" (Key Thinkers in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language, 2005).
- Communicative Competence
- Contact Linguistics
- Conversation Analysis
- Discourse Analysis
- Discourse Community and Discourse Domain
- Folk Linguistics
- Gender (Sociolinguistics) and Language and Gender
- Language Change
- Language Planning and Language Standardization
- Language Variety
- Linguistic Anthropology
- Linguistic Imperialism
- Post-Creole Continuum
- Social Dialect
- Text Linguistics
- What Is Linguistics?
Examples and Observations:
- "There are several possible relationships between language and society. One is that social structure may either influence or determine linguistic structure and/or behavior. . . .
"A second possible relationship is directly opposed to the first: linguistic structure and/or behavior may either influence or determine social structure. . . . A third possible relationship is that the influence is bi-directional: language and society may influence each other. . . .
"Whatever sociolinguistics is, . . . any conclusions we come to must be solidly based on evidence."
(Ronald Wardhaugh, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 6th ed. Wiley, 2010)
- Sociolinguistic Methods
"The standard way in which sociolinguists investigate [language] use is by random sampling of the population. In classic cases, like those undertaken in New York by [William] Labov, or in Norwich by [Peter] Trudgill, a number of linguistic variables are selected, such as 'r' (variably pronounced according to where it occurs in a word) or 'ng' (variably pronounced /n/ or /ŋ/). Sections of the population, known as informants, are then tested to see the frequency with which they produce particular variants. The results are then set against social indices which group informants into classes, based on factors such as education, money, occupation, and so forth. On the basis of such data it is possible to chart the spread of innovations in accent and dialect regionally."
(Geoffrey Finch, Linguistic Terms and Concepts. Palgrave Macmillan, 2000)
- Subfields and Branches of Sociolinguistics
"Sociolinguistics includes anthropological linguistics, dialectology, discourse analysis, ethnography of speaking, geolinguistics, language contact tsudies, secular linguistics, the social psychology of language and the sociology of language."
(Peter Trudgill, A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press, 2003)
- Sociolinguistic Competence
"Sociolinguistic competence enables speakers to distinguish among possibilities such as the following. To get someone's attention in English, each of the utterances
- 'Excuse me!', and
- 'Sir!' or 'Ma'am!'
"Every language accommodates such differences as a non-discrete scale or continuum of recognizably different linguistic 'levels' or styles, termed registers, and every socially mature speaker, as part of learning the language, has learned to distinguish and choose among places on the scale of register."
(G. Hudson, Essential Introductory Linguistics. Blackwell, 2000)