The collection and evaluation of information about a particular subject.
"Deductive research," says Russell Schutt, "begins at the point of theory, inductive research begins with data but ends with theory, and descriptive research begins with data and ends with empirical generalizations" (Investigating the Social World, 2012). See Observations, below.
- Research Paper
- The Advantages of Slow Reading and Slow Writing
- Choosing a Style Manual and Documentation Guide
- Confirmation Bias
- Critical Essay
- Discovery Strategies (Heuristics)
- Literature Review
- "Look at Your Fish!" by Samuel H. Scudder
- Primary Source
- "Quote . . . Misquote": The Challenge of Verifying Quotations
- Secondary Source
- Summary and Synopsis
- Writer's Notebook
Etymology:From the Old French, "to search, examine"
- "Talent must be stimulated by facts and ideas. Do research. Feed your talent. Research not only wins the war on cliche, it's the key to victory over fear and its cousin, depression."
(Robert McKee, Story: Style, Structure, Substance, and the Principles of Screenwriting. HarperCollins, 1997)
- College Research Assignments
"College research assignments are an opportunity for you to contribute to an intellectual inquiry or debate. Most college assignments ask you to pose a question worth exploring, to read widely in search of possible answers, to interpret what you read, to draw reasoned conclusions, and to support those conclusions with valid and well-documented evidence. Such assignments may at first seem overwhelming, but if you pose a question that intrigues you and approach it like a detective, with genuine curiosity, you will soon learn how rewarding research can be. . . .
"Admittedly, the process takes time: time for researching and time for drafting, revising, and documenting the paper in the style recommended by your instructor. Before beginning a research project, you should set a realistic schedule of deadlines."
(Diana Hacker, The Bedford Handbook, 6th ed. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002)
- A Framework for Conducting Research
"Beginning researchers need to start by using the seven steps listed below. The path is not always linear, but these steps provide a framework for conducting research. . . .
- Define your research question
- Ask for help
- Develop a research strategy and locate resources
- Use effective search techniques
- Read critically, synthesize, and seek meaning
- Understand the scholarly communication process and cite sources
- Critically evaluate sources"
- Write What You Know?
"I refer to [the writing motto] 'Write what you know,' and problems emerge when it’s interpreted to mean that first-grade teachers should (only?) write about being a first-grade teacher, short-story writers living in Brooklyn should write about being a short-story writer living in Brooklyn, and so forth. . . .
"Writers who are intimately familiar with their subject produce more knowing, more confident and, as a result, stronger results. . . .
"But that command is not perfect, implying, as it does, that one’s written output should be limited to one’s passions. Some people don’t feel passionate about one given subject, which is regrettable but shouldn’t consign them to the sidelines of the world of prose. Fortunately, this conundrum has an escape clause: you can actually acquire knowledge. In journalism this is called 'reporting,' and in nonfiction, 'research.' . . . [T]he idea is to investigate the subject till you can write about it with complete confidence and authority. Being a serial expert is actually one of the cool things about the very enterprise of writing: You learn ’em and leave ’em."
(Ben Yagoda, "Should We Write What We Know?" The New York Times, July 22, 2013)
- The Lighter Side of Research
"Poking a dead raccoon is not research."
(Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
"'Google' is not a synonym for 'research.'"
(Dan Brown, The Lost Symbol, 2009)
"I find that a great part of the information I have was acquired by looking up something and finding something else on the way."
(Franklin Pierce Adams, quoted in Reader's Digest, October 1960)