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relative clause


relative clause

The relative clause italicized in sentence a is restrictive. The relative clause in sentence b is nonrestrictive.


A clause that generally modifies a noun or noun phrase and is introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose), a relative adverb (where, when, why), or a zero relative. Also known as an adjective clause.

A relative clause is a postmodifier--that is, it follows the noun or noun phrase it modifies.

Relative clauses are traditionally divided into two types: restrictive and nonrestrictive.

See also:


Examples and Observations:

  • "It is not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages."
    (Henry Ford)

  • "Animals, whom we have made our slaves, we do not like to consider our equal."
    (Charles Darwin)

  • "Peace is not merely a distant goal that we seek, but a means by which we arrive at that goal."
    (Martin Luther King, Jr.)

  • "I like to keep a bottle of stimulant handy in case I see a snake, which I also keep handy."
    (W.C. Fields)

  • "The essence of childhood, of course, is play, which my friends and I did endlessly on streets / that we reluctantly shared with traffic."
    (Bill Cosby)

  • "Titmice, which had hidden in the leafy shade of mountains all summer, perched on the gutter."
    (Annie Dillard, Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, 1974)

  • "Every generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it."
    (George Orwell)

  • "The Hon Freddie belonged to the class of persons who move through life with their mouths always restfully open."
    (P.G. Wodehouse, Something Fresh, 1915)

  • "She was a small, hunched old lady with hair that was still jet black; it was held flat with tortoise-shell combs from which it crinkled and bucked like something powerful."
    (Anne Tyler, Morgan's Passing. Random House, 1980)

  • "I did not learn everything I need to know in kindergarten."
    (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)

  • "The river on which I used to live--the Russian, in northern California--was named in honor of the fur traders who established settlements near it almost two centuries ago."
    (Bill Barich, "Steelhead on the Russian." Traveling Light. Viking, 1984)

  • "She had given Laura a ten-dollar tip, far and away the biggest that she'd ever received--and Laura had split it the next day with Billy, who almost never got tipped because people knew he was simple and had no real concept of money."
    (Antoinette Stockenberg, A Month at the Shore. St. Martin's, 2003)

  • Positioning Relative Clauses
    "Unlike prepositional phrases, restrictive relative clauses . . . always modify noun phrases. However, a relative clause doesn't always immediately follow the noun phrase that it modifies. For example, if two relative clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, or but), then the second one doesn't immediately follow the noun phrase that it modifies:
    This article describes features that facilitate collaboration but that are not intended to increase security.
    (John R. Kohl, The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market. SAS Institute, 2008)

  • Anaphoric Elements in Relative Clauses
    "Relative clauses are so called because they are related by their form to an antecedent. They contain within their structure an anaphoric element whose interpretation is determined by the antecedent. This anaphoric element may be overt or covert. In the overt case the relative clause is marked by the presence of one of the relative words who, whom, whose, which, etc., as or within the initial constituent: clauses of this type we call wh relatives. In non-wh relatives the anaphoric element is covert, a gap; this class is then subdivided into that relatives and bare relatives depending on the presence or absence of that."
    (Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002)

  • Sentence Relative Clauses
    "Sentence relative clauses refer back to the whole clause or sentence, not just to one noun. They always go at the end of the clause or sentence.
    Tina admires the Prime Minister, which surprises me. (= 'and this surprises me')
    He never admits his mistakes, which is extremely annoying. (= 'and this is extremely annoying')"
    (Geoffrey Leech, Benita Cruickshank, and Roz Ivanic, An A-Z of English Grammar & Usage, 2nd ed. Pearson, 2001)


Also Known As: relative construction, adjective clause, adjectival clause

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