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A simplified view of the communication process


The individual who initiates a message in the communication process.

The sender may be a speaker, a writer, or someone who merely gestures.

See also:

Examples and Observations:

  • The Sender in the Communication Process
    "Two essential elements in every communication situation are the sender and the receiver. The sender is anyone who wishes to convey an idea or concept to others, seek information, or express a thought or emotion. The receiver is the person to whom the message is sent. The sender encodes the idea by selecting symbols with which to compose a message. The message is the tangible formulation of the idea that is sent to the receiver. The message is sent through a channel, which is the communication carrier. The channel can be a formal report, a telephone call, an e-mail message, or a face-to-face meeting. The receiver decodes the symbols to interpret the meaning of the message."
    (Richard L. Daft and Dorothy Marcic, Understanding Management, 7th ed. South-Western, 2010)

  • Credibility and Attractiveness of the Sender
    "Although credibility is a characteristic of the sender, its reception often depends on the audience's evaluation of the speaker. The sender may believe she is an expert without bias, but the receiver might not acknowledge this. For example, a college professor may be considered an expert in his or her field of study, but students may not believe the professor is an expert on various social or political topics. A highly credible communicator may be very persuasive, whereas a communicator with low credibility may cause the audience to believe the opposite of the message (sometimes called the boomerang effect).

    "The attractiveness of the communicator also influences how a communicator is received (Chaiken, 1979). Attractiveness relates not only to physical appearance. We tend to find people more attractive if they are similar to us in appearance, background, attitudes, or lifestyles (Wilder, 1990). We also find high-status people, and others we want to be like, attractive."
    (Daniel Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams, 2nd ed. Sage, 2007)

  • Delayed Feedback in Written Communication
    "Channels for written communication include reports, letters, memos, online discussion boards, and e-mail messages. Most of these channels permit only delayed feedback and create a record of the message. So it is important for the sender of a written communication to prepare the message carefully and review it to avoid misunderstandings.

    "Effective written communication reflects its audience, the channel carrying the message, and the appropriate degree of formality. When writing a formal business document, such as a complex report, a manager must plan in advance and carefully construct the document. The process of writing a formal document involves, planning, research, organization, composition and design, and revision. Written communication via e-mail may call for a less-formal writing style, including short sentences, phrases, and lists."
    (Louis E. Boone and David L. Kurtz, Contemporary Business, 13th ed. John Wiley, 2009)

Also Known As: communicator, source
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