A form of the verb that is represented in English by either the third-person singular -s inflection (for example, "She laughs") or the base form ("I/You/We/They laugh"). Also called the simple present or the non-past. Contrast with the past tense or preterite.
The present tense may refer to an action or event that takes place at the present moment. However, because the present tense in English can also be used to express a range of other meanings (including references to past and future events, depending on the context), it is sometimes described as being "unmarked for time." (See Examples and Observations, below.)
- Backshift and Sequence of Tenses
- Gnomic Present
- Habitual Present
- Historical Present and Literary Present
- Present Perfect
- Present Progressive
- Present Perfect Progressive
- Tense Shift
- Using the Present Perfect
Examples and Observations:
- "She crunches and munches and
dribbles her crumbs.
She slurps from her juice box;
She whistles and hums."
(Tamera Will Wissinger, "Lucy's Quiet Time." Gone Fishing. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013)
- "He cuts down trees.
He skips and jumps."
(Monty Python, "The Lumberjack Song." And Now for Something Completely Different, 1971)
- "A twelve-year-old boy comes forward. He is small, dark, muscular, concentrated. He tucks the violin under his chin, rises on his toes, closes his eyes, dilates his nostrils, and begins to play the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E."
(Saul Bellow, To Jerusalem and Back. Viking, 1976)
- "Animals--lions and zebras and beautiful snakes--live vividly in the present tense, in a bright unconsciousness of time. That is their innocence and their limitation. Humans carry with them their experiences, their pasts; men and women work with a knowledge of consequences and, doing so, impose order on the chaotic present and project consequences into the future."
(Lance Morrow, "The Trouble With The Present Tense." Time magazine, March 30, 1998)
- "Home is that youthful region where a child is the only real living inhabitant. Parents, siblings, and neighbors are mysterious apparitions, who come, go, and do strange unfathomable things in and around the child, the region's only enfranchised citizen."
(Maya Angeou, "Home." Letter to My Daughter. Random House, 2008)
- "On the beach we dip freshly dug clams from their shells. We play catch or sail a dinghy or holler; we have sand in our hair, calluses on our feet, hot brown skin on our arms. This is the life of the senses, the life of pleasures. It is mirage on the half shell. It vanishes like any fun, and the empty winds resume.
(Annie Dillard, "Mirages." Teaching a Stone to Talk, 1982)
- "I loop a bale string onto the calf's exposed foot, knot the string short around a stick which my son then holds. I press my hand gently into the birth canal until I find the second foot and then, a little further on, a nose. I loop a string around the second foot, fasten on another stick for a handhold. And then we pull."
(Wendell Berry, "A Few Words for Motherhood," 1982)
- "A jerk . . . is a man (or woman) who is utterly unable to see himself as he appears to others. He has no grace, he is tactless without meaning to be, he is a bore even to his best friends, he is an egotist without charm. All of us are egotists to some extent, but most of us--unlike the jerk--are perfectly and horribly aware of it when we make asses of ourselves. The jerk never knows."
(Sidney J. Harris, "A Jerk." Last Things First, 1961)
- "The buses rumble like green juggernauts through the snow that sifts down in the dusk. White house walls rise through the dusky snow. Snow is never more beautiful than in the city. It is wonderful in Paris to stand on a bridge across the Seine looking up through the softly curtaining snow past the grey bulk of the Louvre, up the river spanned by many bridges and bordered by the grey houses of old Paris to where Notre Dame squats in the dusk."
(Ernest Hemingway, The Toronto Star, 1923; rpt. in By-Line: Ernest Hemingway, ed. by William White. Scribner's, 1967)
- Functions of the Present Tense
"The present tense designates action occurring at the time of speaking or writing: She lives in Toronto. It is used to indicate habitual actions: I exercise every morning. It is also used to express general truths (Time flies) and scientific knowledge (Light travels faster than sound). . . .
"Present tense also has some special uses:
- to indicate future time when used with time expressions:
We travel to Italy next week.
Michael returns in the morning.
- to describe works of literature and the arts:
Hamlet avoids avenging his father's death for one reason."
- to indicate future time when used with time expressions:
- Seven Main Meanings of the Present Tense
"Present tense (or 'simple' present tense) forms are used to express seven main meanings:
1) Permanent state: Jupiter is a very massive planet.(Michael Pearce, The Routledge Dictionary of English Language Studies. Routledge, 2007)
2) General truth: The earth is round.
3) Habitual action: Her daughter works in Rome.
4) 'Live' commentary: In each case I add the two numbers: three plus three gives six . . ..
5) Performative: I pronounce you man and wife (see speech-act theory).
6) Past time (see historic present): He moves to the window alongside, and sees her inside the office moving away from the door. He shoots twice through the window and kills her.
7) Future time: My flight leaves at four thirty this afternoon."
- Effects of the Present Tense
- "I discovered as I began to write how delicious the present tense is . . .. Action takes on a wholly different, flickering quality; thought and feeling and event are brought much closer together. And so the present tense proved to be a happy one and I wrote on and on."
(John Updike, The New York Times Book Review, Oct. 5, 1990)
"Rabbit takes off his coat, folds it nicely, and rests it on a clean ashcan lid. Behind him the dungarees begin to scuffle again. He goes into the scrimmaging thick of them for the ball, flips it from two weak grubby-knuckled child's hands, has it in his own. That old stretched-leather feeling makes his whole body go taut, gives his arms wings. It feels like he's reaching down through years to touch this tautness. His arms lift of their own and the rubber ball floats toward the basket from the top of his head. It feels so right he blinks when the ball drops short, and for a second wonders if it went through the hoop without riffling the net. He asks, 'Hey whose side am I on?'"
(John Updike, Rabbit, Run. Alfred A. Knopf. 1960)
- "Philip Pullman and Philip Hensher claimed that the use of present tense [in novels] is becoming a cliché. . . .
"The six authors listed for this year's [Man Booker Prize] are Peter Carey, Andrea Levy, Howard Jacobson, Tom McCarthy, Damon Galgut and Emma Donoghue. The first three authors' novels are in the past tense while the others written in the more 'fashionable' style.
"Hensher, whose novel The Northern Clemency was Booker shortlisted in 2008, said that writers were mistaken by thinking that using the present tense would make their writing more vivid. He said: 'Writing is vivid if it is vivid. A shift in tense won't do that for you.'"
(Laura Roberts, "Philip Pullman and Philip Hensher Criticise Booker Prize for Including Present Tense Novels." The Daily Telegraph, Sep. 11, 2010)