In contemporary language studies, the object of a preposition is sometimes described as a prepositional complement. (See Examples and Observations, below.)
- What Are Prepositional Phrases?
- Expanding Sentences With Prepositional Phrases
- How to Arrange Prepositional Phrases
- Identifying Prepositional Phrases
- Preposition Stranding
- Sentence Building with Prepositional Phrases
- "One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got in my pajamas, I don't know."
(Groucho Marx in Animal Crackers, 1930)
- "You can't buy a bag of peanuts in this town without someone writing a song about you."
(Charles Foster Kane in Citizen Kane, 1941)
- "Toto, I've got a feeling we're not in Kansas anymore."
(Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz, 1939)
- "You, my friend, are a victim of disorganized thinking. You are under the unfortunate impression that just because you run away you have no courage; you're confusing courage with wisdom."
(The Wizard in The Wizard of Oz, 1939)
- "Here's looking at you, kid."
(Rick in Casablanca, 1942)
- "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."
(Rick in Casablanca, 1942)
- "I have here, Harold, the forms sent out by the National Computer Dating Service. It seems to me that as you do not get along with the daughters of my friends this is the best way for you to find a prospective wife."
(Mrs. Chasen in Harold and Maude, 1971)
- "I love the smell of napalm in the morning."
(Apocalypse Now, 1979)
- "It was the best place to be, thought Wilbur, this warm delicious cellar, with the garrulous geese, the changing seasons, the heat of the sun, the passage of swallows, the nearness of rats, the sameness of sheep, the love of spiders, the smell of manure, and the glory of everything."
(E.B. White, Charlotte's Web. Harper & Row, 1952)
- "I spent the greater part of that night with Scott Fitzgerald listening to an outpouring of woe, charm, lost-youth sadness, boasts, family disasters, nostalgia, fears, hopes, pure babbling, and a lot of coughing."
(David Niven, Bring on the Empty Horses. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1975)
- Postmodifiers vs Prepositional Complements
"We refer to the element following a preposition as a complement rather than a post-modifier because, unlike a post-modifier, it is not optional. The preposition at, for example, must be followed by a prepositional complement. . . .
"The prepositional complement is typically a noun phrase, but it may also be a nominal relative clause or an -ing clause. Both the nominal relative clause and the -ing clause have a range of functions similar to that of a noun phrase:
1. complement as noun phraseAs its name suggests, the preposition ('preceding position') normally comes before the prepositional complement. There are several exceptions, however, where the complement is moved and the preposition is left stranded by itself. The stranding is obligatory when the complement is transformed into the subject of the sentence:
through the window
2. complement as nominal relative clause
from what I've heard ('from that which I've heard')
3. complement as -ing clause
after speaking to you
Your case will soon be attended to.In questions and relative clauses, the prepositional complement may be a pronoun or adverb that is fronted. In that case, the preposition is normally stranded:
This ball is for you to play with.
The picture is worth looking at.
Who are you waiting for?(Gerald C. Nelson and Sidney Greenbaum, An Introduction to English Grammar, 3rd ed. Routledge, 2013)
Where are you coming from?
I am the person (that) you are waiting for. (In relative clauses the pronoun may be omitted."