- First-Person Point of View
- Implied Author
- Point of View
- Third-Person Point of View
- Unreliable Narrator
- "The term 'narrator' can be used in both a broad and a narrow sense. The broad sense is 'one who tells a story,' whether that person is real or imagined; this is the sense given in most dictionary definitions. Literary scholars, however, by 'narrator' often mean a purely imaginative person, a voice emerging from a text to tell a story. . . . Narrators of this kind include omniscient narrators, that is, narrators not only who are imaginary but who exceed normal human capabilities in their knowledge of events."
(Elspeth Jajdelska, Silent Reading and the Birth of the Narrator. Univ. of Toronto Press, 2007)
- Narrators in Creative Nonfiction
- "Nonfiction often achieves its momentum not just through narrative--telling the story--but also through the meditative intelligence behind the story, the author as narrator thinking through the implications of the story, sometimes overtly, sometimes more subtly.
"This thinking narrator who can infuse a story with shades of ideas is what I miss most in much nonfiction that is otherwise quite compelling--we get only raw story and not the more essayistic, reflective narrator. . . . [I]n telling nonfiction stories we can't as writers know anybody's interior life but our own, so our interior life--our thought process, the connections we make, the questions and doubts raised by the story--must carry the whole intellectual and philosophical burden of the piece."
(Philip Gerard, "Adventures in Celestial Navigation." In Fact: The Best of Creative Nonfiction, ed. by Lee Gutkind. W.W. Norton, 2005)
- "Readers of the nonfiction work expect to experience more directly the mind of the author, who will frame the meaning of things for herself and tell the readers. In fiction, the writer can become other people; in nonfiction, she becomes more of herself. In fiction, the reader must step into a believable fictional realm; in nonfiction, the writer speaks intimately, from the heart, directly addressing the reader's sympathies. In fiction, the narrator is generally not the author; in nonfiction--barring special one-off personas as encountered in Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal--the writer and narrator are essentially the same. In fiction, the narrator can lie; the expectation in nonfiction is that the writer won't. There's an assumption that the story is, to as great an extent as possible, true; that the tale and its narrator are reliable."
(New York Writers Workshop, The Portable MFA in Creative Writing. Writer's Digest Books, 2006)
- First Person and Third Person
"[S]imple, direct storytelling is so common and habitual that we do it without planning in advance. The narrator (or teller) of such a personal experience is the speaker, the one who was there. . . . The telling is usually subjective, with details and language chosen to express the writer's feelings. . . .
"When a story isn't your own experience but a recital of someone else's, or of events that are public knowledge, then you proceed differently as narrator. Without expressing opinions, you step back and report, content to stay invisible. Instead of saying, 'I did this; I did that,' you use the third person, he, she, it, or they. . . . Generally, a nonparticipant is objective in setting forth events, unbiased, as accurate and dispassionate as possible."
(X.J. Kennedy et al., The Bedford Reader. St. Martin's, 2000)
- Narrators and Readers
"It is well known that in linguistic communication I and you are absolutely presupposed one by the other; likewise, there can be no story without a narrator and without an audience (or reader)."
(Roland Barthes, "An Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narrative," 1966)