**Definition:**

An argument based on inductive or deductive reasoning. In classical rhetoric, logos.

See also:

- Artistic Proofs
- Claim
- Conclusion
- Critical Thinking
- Logical Fallacies
- Pistis
- Premise
- Proof
- Sorites
- Validity

### Etymology:

From the Latin, "prove"### Observations:

- "Aristotle developed four
**logical**methods to help people argue their way through complex issues: scientific demonstration, dialectic, rhetoric, and false or contentious reasoning. Aristotle taught that in each of these kinds of reasoning the arguer began with a statement called a premise. . . . Premises are then combined with other premises to reach conclusions."

(S. Crowley,*Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students*. Pearson, 2004) - "In a
**logical proof**, the premises may or may not all be true, the conclusion is a consequence of the premise-set, and, therefore, the conclusion may or may not be true. What we*can*say in the case of a logical proof is that it is logically impossible for the conclusion to be false unless at least one of the premises is false."

(M.R. Cohen,*An Introduction to Logic*. Hackett, 1993) **Logical proofs**(SICDADS) are convincing because they are real and drawn from experience. Answer all of the proof questions that apply to your issue.*Signs*: What signs show that this might be true?*Induction*: What examples can I use? What conclusion can I draw from the examples? Can my readers make the "inductive leap" from the examples to an acceptance of the conclusion?*Cause*: What is the main cause of the controversy? What are the effects?*Deduction*: What conclusions will I draw? What general principles, warrants, and examples are they based on?*Analogies*: What comparisons can I make? Can I show that what happened in the past might happen again or that what happened in one case might happen in another?*Definition*: What do I need to define?*Statistics*: What statistics can I use? How should I present them?

*Perspectives on Argument*. Pearson, 2004)

**Also Known As:**rational appeal, logos