- Discovery Strategies (Heuristics)
- What Is the List Trick?
Methods and Examples:
- "Listing is probably the simplest prewriting strategy and is usually the first method writers use to generate ideas. Listing means exactly what the name implies--listing your ideas and experiences. First set a time limit for this activity; 5-10 minutes is more than enough. Then write down as many ideas as you can without stopping to analyze any of them. . . .
"After you have generated your list of topics, review the list and pick one item that you might like to write about. Now you're ready for the next listing; this time, create a topic-specific list in which you write down as many ideas as you can about the one topic you have selected. This list will help you look for a focus for your . . . paragraph. Don't stop to analyze any of the ideas. Your goal is to free your mind, so don't worry if you feel you're rambling."
(Luis Nazario, Deborah Borchers, and William Lewis, Bridges to Better Writing. Wadsworth, 2010)
- "Like brainstorming, listing involves the unmonitored generation of words, phrases, and ideas. Listing offers another way of of producing concepts and sources for further thought, exploration, and speculation. Listing is distinct from freewriting and brainstorming in that students generate only words and phrases, which can be classified and organized, if only in a sketchy way. Consider the case of a postsecondary academic ESL writing course in which students are first asked to develop a topic related to modern college life and then to compose a letter or editorial piece on the subject. One of the broad topics that emerged in freewriting and brainstorming sessions was 'The Benefits and Challenges of Being a College Student.' This simple stimulus generated the following list:
BenefitsThe items in this preliminary list overlap considerably. Nonetheless, such a list can offer students concrete ideas for narrowing a broad topic to a manageable scope and for selecting a meaningful direction for their writing."
living away from home
freedom to come and go
financial and social responsibilities
making new friends
practicing good study habits
(Dana Ferris and John Hedgcock, Teaching ESL Composition: Purpose, Process, and Practice, 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005)