Etymology:From the Greek, "extra" + "name"
Examples and Observations:
- "The foot of footstep narrows down the type of step being expressed to the step made by a foot. A footstep is a kind of step; or, in more technical terms, footstep is a hyponym, or subtype, of step, and step is a hypernym, or supertype, of footstep. . . . Doorstep is also a hyponym of step, and step is a hypernym of doorstep."
(Keith M. Denning, Brett Kessler, and William Ronald Leben, English Vocabulary Elements. Oxford Univ. Press, 2007)
- "The most illuminating way of defining a lexeme is to provide a hypernym along with various distinguishing features--an approach to definition whose history can be traced back to Aristotle. For example, a majorette is 'a girl' (the hypernym) 'who twirls a baton and accompanies a marching band.' It is usually possible to trace a hierarchical path through a dictionary, following the hypernyms as they become increasingly abstract, until we arrive at such general notions (essence, being, existence) that clear sense-relations between the lexemes no longer exist."
(David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003)
- "A hypernym is a word with a general meaning that has basically the same meaning of a more specific word. For example, dog is a hypernym, while collie and chihuahua are more specific subordinate terms. The hypernym tends to be a basic-level category that is used by speakers with high frequency; speakers usually refer to collies and chihuahuas as dogs, rather than using the subordinate terms, which are consequently of relatively low frequency."
(Laurie Beth Feldman, Morphological Aspects of Language Processing. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995)
Also Known As: superordinate term