Examples and Observations:
- "Glottalization is a general term for any articulation involving a simultaneous constriction, especially a glottal stop. In English, glottal stops are often used in this way to reinforce a voiceless plosive at the end of a word, as in what?"
(David Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Blackwell, 1997)
- "We often make this stop--it's the sound we make when we say 'uh-oh.' In some languages, this is a separate consonant sound, but in English we often use it with d, t, k, g, b or p when one of those sounds happens at the end of a word or syllable. . . . We close the vocal cords very sharply and make the air stop for just a moment. We don't let the air escape.
"This glottal stop is the last sound of these words:
- words: light . . . flight . . . put . . . take . . . make . . . trip . . . report
- multisyllable words: stoplight . . . apartment . . . backseat . . . assortment . . . workload . . . upbeat
- phrases: right now . . . talk back . . . cook the books . . . hate mail . . . fax machine . . . back-breaking
(Charlsie Childs, Improve Your American English Accent. McGraw Hill, 2004)
- "Nowadays younger speakers of many forms of British English have glottal stops at the ends of words such as cap, cat, and back. A generation or so ago speakers of BBC English would have regarded such a pronunciation as improper, almost as bad as producing a glottal stop between vowels in the London Cockney pronunciation of butter . . .. In America nearly everybody has a glottal stop in button and bitten . . .."
(Peter Ladefoged, Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. Blackwell, 2005)