(2) A standard form using two negatives to express a positive ("She is not unhappy").
Examples and Observations:
- Examples of Double Negatives: Definition #1
- "I won't not use no double negatives."
(Bart Simpson, The Simpsons, 1999)
- "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous."
(Geoffrey Chaucer, "The Friar's Tale" in The Canterbury Tales)
- "Nor never none
Shall mistress of it be, save I alone."
(William Shakespeare, Viola in Twelfth Night)
- "You ain’t heard nothin’ yet, folks!"
(Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer)
- "Badges? We ain't got no badges. We don't need no badges!"
(Alfonso Bedoya as Gold Hat in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, 1948)
June Cleaver: Oh Wally, I wonder if you'd mind going to the supermarket for me.
Wally Cleaver: Well, I guess I could. I'm not hardly doing anything.
June Cleaver: Wally, you never use not and hardly together. Either you're not doing anything, or you're hardly doing anything.
Wally Cleaver: Oh. I wasn't sure, so I stuck 'em both in.
("Beaver Finds a Wallet." Leave It to Beaver, 1960)
- Mencken on Double Negatives
"Syntactically, perhaps the chief characteristic of vulgar American is its sturdy fidelity to the double negative. So freely is it used, indeed, that the simple negative appears to be almost abandoned. Such phrases as 'I see nobody,' 'I could hardly walk,' 'I know nothing about it' are heard so seldom among the masses of the people that they appear to be affectations when encountered; the well-nigh universal forms are 'I don’t see nobody,' 'I couldn’t hardly walk,' and 'I don’t know nothing about it.'"
(H. L. Mencken, The American Language, 1921)
- Examples of Double Negatives: Definition #2
- "It is hoped that American teachers may not find this Manual inappropriate to their use."
(J.M. Bonnell, A Manual of the Art of Prose Composition. Morton, 1867)
- "Mr. Sherlock Holmes, who was usually very late in the mornings, save upon those not infrequent occasions when he was up all night, was seated at the breakfast table."
(Arthur Conan Doyle, The Hound of the Baskervilles, 1902)
- "I know a college president who can be described only as a jerk. He is not an unintelligent man, nor unlearned, nor even unschooled in the social amenities."
(Sidney J. Harris, "A Jerk," 1961)
- Triple Negatives
"You better not never tell nobody but God."
(Alice Walker, The Color Purple, 1982)
"We try every way we can do to kill the game, but for some reason, nothing nobody does never hurts it."
(Sparky Anderson, quoted by George Will in "Baseball Lit. 101," 1990)
- Quadruple Negatives
- "Why, sir, I never knowed no manner o' luck on no ship nowhen and nowhere, wi' unmarried females aboard."
(Lovepeace Farrance, quoted by George Choundas in The Pirate Primer: Mastering the Language of Swashbucklers and Rogues. Writer's Digest Books, 2007)
- Right down on the ground his stick he throwed.
And he shivered and said, "Well, I am blowed."
And he turned away, with a heart full sore,
And he never was seen not none no more.
(Robert J. Burdette, "Romance of the Carpet")
- Proscriptions Against the Double Negative
"Most kinds of double negative are inappropriate in spoken and written Standard English except in jocular use . . .. This was not always so, however, and the double negative remains one of the best illustrations of what was once a perfectly acceptable locution being driven by the decisions of grammarians, not out of the language, but out of Standard use."
(Kenneth G. Wilson, The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Columbia University Press, 1993)
"The prohibition on double negatives may have begun with Robert Lowth, an 18th century Bishop of London, who wrote A Short Introduction to English Grammar. In it he stated that 'two Negatives in English destroy one another, or are equivalent to an affirmative.' Perhaps his high status as a bishop led people to believe that his strictures on language were divinely inspired. The ban stuck. In the late 19th century, for example, an educator commented: 'The student . . . is instructed how contrary to reason is a Double Negative.' Yet it never entirely disappeared. It is still found in some varieties of English, as in the old music hall song: 'We don't know no one wot don’t want no nine inch nails.'"
(Jean Aitchison, The Language Web: The Power and Problem of Words. Cambridge University Press, 1997)