A branch of writing that employs the literary techniques usually associated with fiction or poetry to report on actual persons, places, or events.
The genre of creative nonfiction (also known as literary nonfiction) is broad enough to include travel writing, nature writing, science writing, sports writing, biography, autobiography, memoir, the interview, and both the familiar and personal essay.
- 100 Major Works of Modern Creative Nonfiction: A Reading List
- Advanced Composition
- Classic British and American Essays
- Literary Journalism
Examples of Creative Nonfiction:
- "Coney Island at Night," by James Huneker
- "An Experiment in Misery," by Stephen Crane
- "In Mammoth Cave," by John Burroughs
- "Outcasts in Salt Lake City," by James Weldon Johnson
- "Rural Hours," by Susan Fenimore Cooper
- "The San Francisco Earthquake," by Jack London
- "The Watercress Girl," by Henry Mayhew
- "Creative nonfiction . . . is fact-based writing that remains compelling, undiminished by the passage of time, that has at heart an interest in enduring human values: foremost a fidelity to accuracy, to truthfulness."
(Carolyn Forché and Philip Gerard, Introduction, Writing Creative Nonfiction. Story Press, 2001)
- A Checklist for Writers of Creative Nonfiction
"[There] is a significant way in which creative nonfiction differs from journalism. Subjectivity is not required in creative nonfiction, but specific, personal points of view, based on fact and conjecture, are definitely encouraged. . . .
"I would like to recommend a code for creative nonfiction writers--kind of a checklist. . . .
"First, strive for the truth. Be certain that everything you write is as accurate and honest as you can make it. . . .
"Second, recognize the important distinction between recollected conversation and fabricated dialogue. Don't make anything up. . . .
"Third, don't round corners--or compress situations or characters--unnecessarily. . . .
"Fourth, one way to protect the characters in your book, article, or essay is to allow them to defend themselves--or at least to read what you have written about them."
(Lee Gutkind, "The Creative Nonfiction Police?" In Fact. W.W. Norton & Company, 2005)
- Common Elements of Creative Nonfiction
"[Creative nonfiction] can be identified by these common elements: personal presence (the author's self as spectator or participant, whether on the page or behind the scenes), self-discovery and self-motivation, flexibility of form (the tendency for the form to arise from the content rather than the content to be contorted to fit an inverted pyramid or five-paragraph or similarly prescriptive model), veracity (to paraphrase Annie Dillard, rendering the real world coherent and meaningful either analytically or artistically), and literary approaches (drawing on narrative techniques also used in fiction or lyrical language also used in poetry or dramatic rendering of scenes or cinematic uses of pacing and focus)."
(Robert L. Root, The Nonfictionist's Guide: On Reading and Writing Creative Nonfiction. Rowman & Littlefield, 2008)
- Walt Whitman on Writing About Real Things
"Whatever may be the case in years gone by, the true use for the imaginative faculty of modern times is to give ultimate vivification to facts, to science, and to common lives, endowing them with the glows and glories and final illustriousness which belong to every real thing, and to real things only."
(Walt Whitman, "A Backward Glance O'er Travel'd Roads," 1888)