The process of independently analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information as a guide to behavior and beliefs.
The American Philosophical Association has defined critical thinking as "the process of purposeful, self-regulatory judgment. The process gives reasoned consideration to evidence, contexts, conceptualizations, methods, and criteria" (1990). Critical thinking is sometimes broadly defined as "thinking about thinking."
Critical thinking skills include the ability to interpret, verify, and reason, all of which involve applying the principles of logic. The process of using critical thinking to guide writing is called critical writing. See Observations, below.
- Close Reading
- Critical Essay
- Deep Reading
- Evaluation Essay
- Logical Proof
- "On Various Kinds of Thinking," by James Harvey Robinson
- Predigested Thinking
- Socratic Dialogue
- What Are Weasel Words?
- "Critical Thinking is essential as a tool of inquiry. As such, Critical Thinking is a liberating force in education and a powerful resource in one’s personal and civic life. While not synonymous with good thinking, Critical Thinking is a pervasive and self-rectifying human phenomenon. The ideal critical thinker is habitually inquisitive, well-informed, trustful of reason, open-minded, flexible, fair-minded in evaluation, honest in facing personal biases, prudent in making judgments, willing to reconsider, clear about issues, orderly in complex matters, diligent in seeking relevant information, reasonable in the selection of criteria, focused in inquiry, and persistent in seeking results which are as precise as the subject and the circumstances of inquiry permit."
(American Philosophical Association, "Consensus Statement Regarding Critical Thinking," 1990)
- Thought and Language
"In order to understand reasoning, . . . it is necessary to pay careful attention to the relationship between thought and language. The relationship seems to be straightforward: thought is expressed in and through language. But this claim, while true, is an oversimplification. People often fail to say what they mean. Everyone has had the experience of having their words misunderstood by others. And we all use words not merely to express our thoughts but also to shape them. Developing our critical thinking skills, therefore, requires an understanding of the ways in which words can (and often fail to) express our thoughts."
(William Hughes and Jonathan Lavery, Critical Thinking: An Introduction to the Basic Skills, 4th ed. Broadview, 2004)
- Dispositions That Foster or Impede Critical thinking
"Dispositions that foster critical thinking include facility in perceiving irony, ambiguity, and multiplicity of meanings or points of view; the development of open-mindedness, autonomous thought, and reciprocity (Piaget's term for ability to empathize with other individuals, social groups, nationalities, ideologies, etc.). Dispositions that act as impediments to critical thinking include defense mechanisms (such as absolutism or primary certitude, denial, projection), culturally conditioned assumptions, authoritarianism, egocentrism, and ethnocentrism, rationalization, compartmentalization, stereotyping and prejudice."
(Donald Lazere, "Invention, Critical Thinking, and the Analysis of Political Rhetoric." Perspectives on Rhetorical Invention, ed. by Janet M. Atwill and Janice M. Lauer. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2002)
- Critical Thinking and Composing
"Finding a fresh approach to a writing assignment means that you must see the subject without the blinders of preconception. When people expect to see a thing in a certain way, it usually appears that way, whether or not that is its true image. Similarly, thinking based on prefabricated ideas produces writing that says nothing new, that offers nothing important to the reader. As a writer, you have a responsibility to go beyond the expected views and present your subject so that the reader sees it with fresh eyes. . . .[C]ritical thinking is a fairly systematic method of defining a problem and synthesizing knowledge about it, thereby creating the perspective you need to develop new ideas. . . .
"Classical rhetoricians used a series of three questions to help focus an argument. Today these questions can still help writers understand the topic about which they are writing. An sit? (Is the problem a fact?); Quid sit (What is the definition of the problem?); and Quale sit? (What kind of problem is it?). By asking these questions, writers see their subject from many new angles before they begin to narrow the focus to one particular aspect."
(Kristin R. Woolever, About Writing: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Wadsworth, 1991)
- Logical Fallacies:
Ad Hominem, Ad Misericordiam, Amphiboly, Appeal to Authority, Appeal to Force, Appeal to Humor, Appeal to Ignorance, Appeal to the People, Bandwagon, Begging the Question, Circular Argument, Complex Question, Contradictory Premises, Dicto Simpliciter, Equivocation, False Analogy, False Dilemma, Gambler's Fallacy, Hasty Generalization, Name-Calling, Non Sequitur, Paralepsis, Poisoning the Well, Post Hoc, Red Herring, Slippery Slope, Stacking the Deck, Straw Man, Tu Quoque